Categorized | Marijuana Entertainment

Cool Smoking Weed Bronchitis photos

Posted on 22 October 2013 by admin

A few nice smoking weed bronchitis images I found:

Dried buds and seed heads of Little Iron Weed, Cyanthillium cinereum ….Nụ khô và đầu hạt của cây Bạch đầu ông, Bạch đầu tro, Cúc dại tím ….
smoking weed bronchitis
Image by Vietnam Plants & The USA. plants
Vietnamese named : Cúc tím dại, Bạch đầu tro, Bạch đầu ông .
Common names : Little Iron Weed, Ash- Colored Fleabane, Small Iron Weed, Vernonia.
Scientist name : Vernonia cinerea ( L.) Less
Synonyms : Blumea chinensis (L.) DC.; Conyza chinensis L.; Conyza cinerea L.; Senecioides cinerea (L.) Kuntze ex Britt. & Wilson; Serratula cinerea (L.) Roxb.; Cyanthillium cinereum
(L.) H.Rob., Vernonia cinerea var. parviflora (Reinw.) DC.
Family : Asteraceae / Compositae . Họ Cúc ( Hướng Dương )

Links :

**** www.khoahocphothong.com.vn/news/detail/9848/bach-dau-tro….

ĐÁP: Mẫu vật bạn gởi hỏi là cây Bạch đầu tro, còn gọi Bạch đầu ông, tên khoa học là Vernonia cinerea (L) Less., thuộc họ Cúc – Asteraceae.
Bạch đầu ông là cỏ nhất niên, cao 20 – 40 cm, có lông. Lá có phiến bìa nguyên hay có răng, gân phụ 3 – 4 cặp; cuống dài 1 cm. Phát hoa, lá hoa đầu hường hay đo đỏ; lá hoa có lông năm tiết; hoa toàn hình ống. Bế quả có lông màu trắng, lông vòng ngoài ngắn, lông trong dài cỡ 5 mm.
Cỏ dại thông thường, đất hoang, bờ lộ: I – XII. Chứa alcaloid, flavonoid, triterpen, sesquiterpenlacton, sesquiterpen.
Ta ăn lá non; phát hãn, trị ho, trị đau bụng; hoa trị đau mắt; in vitro, chống siêu khuẩn R.D. Ở Arabia, trị bò cạp cắn, sốt, trĩ; rễ, hột trị sán lãi.
Lá non làm rau ăn được, toàn cây có tính phát hãn (ra mồ hôi), lợi tiểu, giải độc, trị ho, đau bụng, sốt nóng. Có tính kháng siêu vi, trị viêm gan, cúm gia cầm. Liều dùng 100 g tươi hoặc 30 g khô sắc uống. Có thể phối hợp với cây Diệp hạ châu (Chó đẻ), Cỏ mực (Lọ nồi), mỗi thứ 30 g dược liệu khô, sắc uống để trị viêm gan siêu vi và các chứng sốt nóng do siêu vi.

___________________________________________________________

**** www.stuartxchange.org/AgasMoro.html
Agas-moro
Vernonia cinerea Linn.
ASH-COLORED FLEABANE
Ye xiang niu

Botany
Agas-moro is an erect, slender, sparingly branched, somewhat pubescent annual herb, growing up to 20 to 80 cm high. Leaves, smaller at higher altitudes, are oblanceolate to obovate, 2 to 6 cm long, with pointed or obtuse tips, with shallowly toothed margins. Heads are small, stalked, borne in open, lax corymbs, and about 7 mm long and 2.5 mm in diameter. Flowers are rather bright-purple, all perfect, the corolla all equal, tubular, slender 5-lobed, about 20 in each head, twice as long as the involucral bracts which are linear and silky. Fruits are achenes, striate, ribbed or angled; pappus hairs numerous.

Properties
Cooling, febrifuge, sedating, decongestant, anti-infectious.
According to Ayurveda, the herb is sweet, cold, tonic, stomachic, astringent.

Distribution
Open waste places throughout the settled areas at low and medium altitudes; common weed, flowering all the year.

Parts used
Whole plant.
Collect from May to August.
Rinse and sun-dry.

Uses
Folkloric
• In the Philippines, infusion of plant taken internally for cough.
• Plant also used for wounds.
• Decoction of leaves used against humid herpes, eczema, etc.
• Used for colds and fever; also for acute jaunditic hepatitis.
• Plant decoction used by Hindus to promote perspirationin febrile affections.
• Combined with quinine, used for malarial fevers.
• Expressed juice of plant used for hemorrhoids.
• In Chuta Nagpus whole plant used as remedy for bladder spasms and strangury.
• Root given for dropsy.
• Flowers used for conjunctivitis; also reported useful for fevers.
• In Patna, leaves employed as alexipharmic and anthelmintic.
• In the Nighantas plant used for asthma, bronchitis, and consumption.
• Neurasthenia, insomnia, night urination among infants, infected sores, mastitis, snake bites, sprains, furuncle.
• Dosage: 15 to 30 gms dried material (among infants, 9 to 15 gms), 30 to 60 gms fresh material in decoction. · · · • Poultice of fresh material used for eczema, carbuncle and snake bites.
• In India, whole herb juice is used most frequently – for eye problems. Also used for poisonous insect and snake bites. As a tonic, taken twice a month with milk. For ringworm, applied to affected parts with milk. Used for all types of fever and considered one of the best remedies for typhoid.
• In Ayurveda, used for consumption, asthma, bronchitis and fevers.
• In Senegal and French Guinea plant infusion used to wash newborn infants; also used for children with incontinence of urine.
• Bitter root used as vermifuge.
• In Ceylon, used for wounds and sores; taken internally to promote sweating.

Studies
• Anti-Arthritic / Anti-Inflammatory: An alcoholic extract from the flower of Vernonia cinerea was tested in adjuvant arthritic rats. The extract reversed major histopathological changes in the arthritic hindpaws. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids and flavanoids. The study concluded that the extract contains a yet-unidentified anti-inflammatory principle.
• Free Radical Scavenging: The levels of oxygen derived free radicals, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalas, glutathione peroxidase amd glutathione) were studied in experimental rats.
• Nephroprotective: Nephroprotective Activity of Herbal Extracts of Vernonia Cinerea in the Cisplatin Model of Renal Toxicity in Rats: Vernonia cinerea is a a plant widely used by the Indian tribal people of Tirumula for urinary complaints. A study on three extracts from the plant showed promising nephrocurative activity and nephroprotective activity in rat-model of cisplastin-induced renal toxicity. Cisplastin is a potent antitumor agent with limited clinical use because of its renal toxicity.
• Toxicity Study: No toxicity was found on a methanol extract study of VC in mice and brine shrimp.
• Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory: Methanol extract of VC was found to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide. It also significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced inflammation together with down regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine level and gene expression.
• Diuretic / Anti-Diuretic Effects: The chloroform extract of leaf induced significant diuresis while the methanol and aqueous extracts induced significant anti-diuresis in rats. In both, the effects were dose-dependent.
• Smoking Cessation Treatment: Veronia cinerea has been used in traditional Thai medicine to relieve cigarette craving. A 24-week, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial on 64 subjects randomized to an infusion of 3-gm crushed dried whole plant of VC in infusion three times daily or placebo. Results were promising and suggest that VC may be a potential alternative to treatment for smoking cessation with significant cost savings. Large scale trials are needed to verify its efficacy.
• Bioactive Constituents: Study isolated four compounds: (+)-Lirioresinol B, stigmasterol, stigmasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside and 4-sulfo-benzocyclobutene. Three of the compounds showed cytotoxicity on PC-12 and three compounds showed inhibition activity. Compound 4 induced NGF-activity.
• Anti-Inflammatory: Methanol extract of the whole plant of VC exhibited significant dose-dependent activity against all phlogistic agents. In the chronic model, it exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity compared with the standard drug phenylbutazone.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: Chloroform, methanolic and ether extracts of VC showed to possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects together with changes in behavioral activities.
• Antibacterial: VC was one of 40 different medicinal plants that showed bioactivity against Corynebacterium macginleyi.

Availability
Wild-crafted.

**** www.hear.org/pier/species/cyanthillium_cinereum.htm

**** keys.trin.org.au:8080/key-server/data/0e0f0504-0103-430d-…

**** ayurvedicmedicinalplants.com/plants/737.html

**** plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CYCI4

**** www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=2…

**** docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:fc5auZpvXr4J:www.n…

Vernonia cinerea, Cyanthillium cinereum, Little Iron Weed ….Bạch đầu ông, Bạch đầu tro, Cúc tím dại …#1
smoking weed bronchitis
Image by Vietnam Plants & The USA. plants
Vietnamese named : Cúc tím dại, Bạch đầu tro, Bạch đầu ông .
Common names : Little Iron Weed, Ash- Colored Fleabane, Small Iron Weed, Vernonia.
Scientist name : Vernonia cinerea ( L.) Less
Synonyms : Blumea chinensis (L.) DC.; Conyza chinensis L.; Conyza cinerea L.; Senecioides cinerea (L.) Kuntze ex Britt. & Wilson; Serratula cinerea (L.) Roxb.; Cyanthillium cinereum
(L.) H.Rob., Vernonia cinerea var. parviflora (Reinw.) DC.
Family : Asteraceae / Compositae . Họ Cúc ( Hướng Dương )

Links :

**** www.khoahocphothong.com.vn/news/detail/9848/bach-dau-tro….

ĐÁP: Mẫu vật bạn gởi hỏi là cây Bạch đầu tro, còn gọi Bạch đầu ông, tên khoa học là Vernonia cinerea (L) Less., thuộc họ Cúc – Asteraceae.
Bạch đầu ông là cỏ nhất niên, cao 20 – 40 cm, có lông. Lá có phiến bìa nguyên hay có răng, gân phụ 3 – 4 cặp; cuống dài 1 cm. Phát hoa, lá hoa đầu hường hay đo đỏ; lá hoa có lông năm tiết; hoa toàn hình ống. Bế quả có lông màu trắng, lông vòng ngoài ngắn, lông trong dài cỡ 5 mm.
Cỏ dại thông thường, đất hoang, bờ lộ: I – XII. Chứa alcaloid, flavonoid, triterpen, sesquiterpenlacton, sesquiterpen.
Ta ăn lá non; phát hãn, trị ho, trị đau bụng; hoa trị đau mắt; in vitro, chống siêu khuẩn R.D. Ở Arabia, trị bò cạp cắn, sốt, trĩ; rễ, hột trị sán lãi.
Lá non làm rau ăn được, toàn cây có tính phát hãn (ra mồ hôi), lợi tiểu, giải độc, trị ho, đau bụng, sốt nóng. Có tính kháng siêu vi, trị viêm gan, cúm gia cầm. Liều dùng 100 g tươi hoặc 30 g khô sắc uống. Có thể phối hợp với cây Diệp hạ châu (Chó đẻ), Cỏ mực (Lọ nồi), mỗi thứ 30 g dược liệu khô, sắc uống để trị viêm gan siêu vi và các chứng sốt nóng do siêu vi.

___________________________________________________________

**** www.stuartxchange.org/AgasMoro.html
Agas-moro
Vernonia cinerea Linn.
ASH-COLORED FLEABANE
Ye xiang niu

Botany
Agas-moro is an erect, slender, sparingly branched, somewhat pubescent annual herb, growing up to 20 to 80 cm high. Leaves, smaller at higher altitudes, are oblanceolate to obovate, 2 to 6 cm long, with pointed or obtuse tips, with shallowly toothed margins. Heads are small, stalked, borne in open, lax corymbs, and about 7 mm long and 2.5 mm in diameter. Flowers are rather bright-purple, all perfect, the corolla all equal, tubular, slender 5-lobed, about 20 in each head, twice as long as the involucral bracts which are linear and silky. Fruits are achenes, striate, ribbed or angled; pappus hairs numerous.

Properties
Cooling, febrifuge, sedating, decongestant, anti-infectious.
According to Ayurveda, the herb is sweet, cold, tonic, stomachic, astringent.

Distribution
Open waste places throughout the settled areas at low and medium altitudes; common weed, flowering all the year.

Parts used
Whole plant.
Collect from May to August.
Rinse and sun-dry.

Uses
Folkloric
• In the Philippines, infusion of plant taken internally for cough.
• Plant also used for wounds.
• Decoction of leaves used against humid herpes, eczema, etc.
• Used for colds and fever; also for acute jaunditic hepatitis.
• Plant decoction used by Hindus to promote perspirationin febrile affections.
• Combined with quinine, used for malarial fevers.
• Expressed juice of plant used for hemorrhoids.
• In Chuta Nagpus whole plant used as remedy for bladder spasms and strangury.
• Root given for dropsy.
• Flowers used for conjunctivitis; also reported useful for fevers.
• In Patna, leaves employed as alexipharmic and anthelmintic.
• In the Nighantas plant used for asthma, bronchitis, and consumption.
• Neurasthenia, insomnia, night urination among infants, infected sores, mastitis, snake bites, sprains, furuncle.
• Dosage: 15 to 30 gms dried material (among infants, 9 to 15 gms), 30 to 60 gms fresh material in decoction. · · · • Poultice of fresh material used for eczema, carbuncle and snake bites.
• In India, whole herb juice is used most frequently – for eye problems. Also used for poisonous insect and snake bites. As a tonic, taken twice a month with milk. For ringworm, applied to affected parts with milk. Used for all types of fever and considered one of the best remedies for typhoid.
• In Ayurveda, used for consumption, asthma, bronchitis and fevers.
• In Senegal and French Guinea plant infusion used to wash newborn infants; also used for children with incontinence of urine.
• Bitter root used as vermifuge.
• In Ceylon, used for wounds and sores; taken internally to promote sweating.

Studies
• Anti-Arthritic / Anti-Inflammatory: An alcoholic extract from the flower of Vernonia cinerea was tested in adjuvant arthritic rats. The extract reversed major histopathological changes in the arthritic hindpaws. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids and flavanoids. The study concluded that the extract contains a yet-unidentified anti-inflammatory principle.
• Free Radical Scavenging: The levels of oxygen derived free radicals, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalas, glutathione peroxidase amd glutathione) were studied in experimental rats.
• Nephroprotective: Nephroprotective Activity of Herbal Extracts of Vernonia Cinerea in the Cisplatin Model of Renal Toxicity in Rats: Vernonia cinerea is a a plant widely used by the Indian tribal people of Tirumula for urinary complaints. A study on three extracts from the plant showed promising nephrocurative activity and nephroprotective activity in rat-model of cisplastin-induced renal toxicity. Cisplastin is a potent antitumor agent with limited clinical use because of its renal toxicity.
• Toxicity Study: No toxicity was found on a methanol extract study of VC in mice and brine shrimp.
• Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory: Methanol extract of VC was found to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide. It also significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced inflammation together with down regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine level and gene expression.
• Diuretic / Anti-Diuretic Effects: The chloroform extract of leaf induced significant diuresis while the methanol and aqueous extracts induced significant anti-diuresis in rats. In both, the effects were dose-dependent.
• Smoking Cessation Treatment: Veronia cinerea has been used in traditional Thai medicine to relieve cigarette craving. A 24-week, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial on 64 subjects randomized to an infusion of 3-gm crushed dried whole plant of VC in infusion three times daily or placebo. Results were promising and suggest that VC may be a potential alternative to treatment for smoking cessation with significant cost savings. Large scale trials are needed to verify its efficacy.
• Bioactive Constituents: Study isolated four compounds: (+)-Lirioresinol B, stigmasterol, stigmasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside and 4-sulfo-benzocyclobutene. Three of the compounds showed cytotoxicity on PC-12 and three compounds showed inhibition activity. Compound 4 induced NGF-activity.
• Anti-Inflammatory: Methanol extract of the whole plant of VC exhibited significant dose-dependent activity against all phlogistic agents. In the chronic model, it exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity compared with the standard drug phenylbutazone.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: Chloroform, methanolic and ether extracts of VC showed to possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects together with changes in behavioral activities.
• Antibacterial: VC was one of 40 different medicinal plants that showed bioactivity against Corynebacterium macginleyi.

Availability
Wild-crafted.

**** www.hear.org/pier/species/cyanthillium_cinereum.htm

**** keys.trin.org.au:8080/key-server/data/0e0f0504-0103-430d-…

**** ayurvedicmedicinalplants.com/plants/737.html

**** plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CYCI4

**** www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=2…

**** docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:fc5auZpvXr4J:www.n…

Vernonia cinerea, Cyanthillium cinereum, Little Iron Weed ….Bạch đầu ông, Bạch đầu tro, Cúc tím dại …#3
smoking weed bronchitis
Image by Vietnam Plants & The USA. plants
Vietnamese named : Cúc tím dại, Bạch đầu tro, Bạch đầu ông .
Common names : Little Iron Weed, Ash- Colored Fleabane, Small Iron Weed, Vernonia.
Scientist name : Vernonia cinerea ( L.) Less
Synonyms : Blumea chinensis (L.) DC.; Conyza chinensis L.; Conyza cinerea L.; Senecioides cinerea (L.) Kuntze ex Britt. & Wilson; Serratula cinerea (L.) Roxb.; Cyanthillium cinereum
(L.) H.Rob., Vernonia cinerea var. parviflora (Reinw.) DC.
Family : Asteraceae / Compositae . Họ Cúc ( Hướng Dương )

Links :

**** www.khoahocphothong.com.vn/news/detail/9848/bach-dau-tro….

ĐÁP: Mẫu vật bạn gởi hỏi là cây Bạch đầu tro, còn gọi Bạch đầu ông, tên khoa học là Vernonia cinerea (L) Less., thuộc họ Cúc – Asteraceae.
Bạch đầu ông là cỏ nhất niên, cao 20 – 40 cm, có lông. Lá có phiến bìa nguyên hay có răng, gân phụ 3 – 4 cặp; cuống dài 1 cm. Phát hoa, lá hoa đầu hường hay đo đỏ; lá hoa có lông năm tiết; hoa toàn hình ống. Bế quả có lông màu trắng, lông vòng ngoài ngắn, lông trong dài cỡ 5 mm.
Cỏ dại thông thường, đất hoang, bờ lộ: I – XII. Chứa alcaloid, flavonoid, triterpen, sesquiterpenlacton, sesquiterpen.
Ta ăn lá non; phát hãn, trị ho, trị đau bụng; hoa trị đau mắt; in vitro, chống siêu khuẩn R.D. Ở Arabia, trị bò cạp cắn, sốt, trĩ; rễ, hột trị sán lãi.
Lá non làm rau ăn được, toàn cây có tính phát hãn (ra mồ hôi), lợi tiểu, giải độc, trị ho, đau bụng, sốt nóng. Có tính kháng siêu vi, trị viêm gan, cúm gia cầm. Liều dùng 100 g tươi hoặc 30 g khô sắc uống. Có thể phối hợp với cây Diệp hạ châu (Chó đẻ), Cỏ mực (Lọ nồi), mỗi thứ 30 g dược liệu khô, sắc uống để trị viêm gan siêu vi và các chứng sốt nóng do siêu vi.

___________________________________________________________

**** www.stuartxchange.org/AgasMoro.html
Agas-moro
Vernonia cinerea Linn.
ASH-COLORED FLEABANE
Ye xiang niu

Botany
Agas-moro is an erect, slender, sparingly branched, somewhat pubescent annual herb, growing up to 20 to 80 cm high. Leaves, smaller at higher altitudes, are oblanceolate to obovate, 2 to 6 cm long, with pointed or obtuse tips, with shallowly toothed margins. Heads are small, stalked, borne in open, lax corymbs, and about 7 mm long and 2.5 mm in diameter. Flowers are rather bright-purple, all perfect, the corolla all equal, tubular, slender 5-lobed, about 20 in each head, twice as long as the involucral bracts which are linear and silky. Fruits are achenes, striate, ribbed or angled; pappus hairs numerous.

Properties
Cooling, febrifuge, sedating, decongestant, anti-infectious.
According to Ayurveda, the herb is sweet, cold, tonic, stomachic, astringent.

Distribution
Open waste places throughout the settled areas at low and medium altitudes; common weed, flowering all the year.

Parts used
Whole plant.
Collect from May to August.
Rinse and sun-dry.

Uses
Folkloric
• In the Philippines, infusion of plant taken internally for cough.
• Plant also used for wounds.
• Decoction of leaves used against humid herpes, eczema, etc.
• Used for colds and fever; also for acute jaunditic hepatitis.
• Plant decoction used by Hindus to promote perspirationin febrile affections.
• Combined with quinine, used for malarial fevers.
• Expressed juice of plant used for hemorrhoids.
• In Chuta Nagpus whole plant used as remedy for bladder spasms and strangury.
• Root given for dropsy.
• Flowers used for conjunctivitis; also reported useful for fevers.
• In Patna, leaves employed as alexipharmic and anthelmintic.
• In the Nighantas plant used for asthma, bronchitis, and consumption.
• Neurasthenia, insomnia, night urination among infants, infected sores, mastitis, snake bites, sprains, furuncle.
• Dosage: 15 to 30 gms dried material (among infants, 9 to 15 gms), 30 to 60 gms fresh material in decoction. · · · • Poultice of fresh material used for eczema, carbuncle and snake bites.
• In India, whole herb juice is used most frequently – for eye problems. Also used for poisonous insect and snake bites. As a tonic, taken twice a month with milk. For ringworm, applied to affected parts with milk. Used for all types of fever and considered one of the best remedies for typhoid.
• In Ayurveda, used for consumption, asthma, bronchitis and fevers.
• In Senegal and French Guinea plant infusion used to wash newborn infants; also used for children with incontinence of urine.
• Bitter root used as vermifuge.
• In Ceylon, used for wounds and sores; taken internally to promote sweating.

Studies
• Anti-Arthritic / Anti-Inflammatory: An alcoholic extract from the flower of Vernonia cinerea was tested in adjuvant arthritic rats. The extract reversed major histopathological changes in the arthritic hindpaws. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids and flavanoids. The study concluded that the extract contains a yet-unidentified anti-inflammatory principle.
• Free Radical Scavenging: The levels of oxygen derived free radicals, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalas, glutathione peroxidase amd glutathione) were studied in experimental rats.
• Nephroprotective: Nephroprotective Activity of Herbal Extracts of Vernonia Cinerea in the Cisplatin Model of Renal Toxicity in Rats: Vernonia cinerea is a a plant widely used by the Indian tribal people of Tirumula for urinary complaints. A study on three extracts from the plant showed promising nephrocurative activity and nephroprotective activity in rat-model of cisplastin-induced renal toxicity. Cisplastin is a potent antitumor agent with limited clinical use because of its renal toxicity.
• Toxicity Study: No toxicity was found on a methanol extract study of VC in mice and brine shrimp.
• Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory: Methanol extract of VC was found to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and nitric oxide. It also significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced inflammation together with down regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine level and gene expression.
• Diuretic / Anti-Diuretic Effects: The chloroform extract of leaf induced significant diuresis while the methanol and aqueous extracts induced significant anti-diuresis in rats. In both, the effects were dose-dependent.
• Smoking Cessation Treatment: Veronia cinerea has been used in traditional Thai medicine to relieve cigarette craving. A 24-week, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial on 64 subjects randomized to an infusion of 3-gm crushed dried whole plant of VC in infusion three times daily or placebo. Results were promising and suggest that VC may be a potential alternative to treatment for smoking cessation with significant cost savings. Large scale trials are needed to verify its efficacy.
• Bioactive Constituents: Study isolated four compounds: (+)-Lirioresinol B, stigmasterol, stigmasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside and 4-sulfo-benzocyclobutene. Three of the compounds showed cytotoxicity on PC-12 and three compounds showed inhibition activity. Compound 4 induced NGF-activity.
• Anti-Inflammatory: Methanol extract of the whole plant of VC exhibited significant dose-dependent activity against all phlogistic agents. In the chronic model, it exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity compared with the standard drug phenylbutazone.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: Chloroform, methanolic and ether extracts of VC showed to possess analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects together with changes in behavioral activities.
• Antibacterial: VC was one of 40 different medicinal plants that showed bioactivity against Corynebacterium macginleyi.

Availability
Wild-crafted.

**** www.hear.org/pier/species/cyanthillium_cinereum.htm

**** keys.trin.org.au:8080/key-server/data/0e0f0504-0103-430d-…

**** ayurvedicmedicinalplants.com/plants/737.html

**** plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CYCI4

**** www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=2…

**** docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:fc5auZpvXr4J:www.n…

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